Engineer Research and Development Center

Center for Contaminated Sediments

US Army Corps of Engineers

Case Studies and Projects

ERDC contaminated sediment projects supporting USACE Divisions, Districts, or USEPA. Click on locations on the map below to learn more about case studies or search on available contaminants.

US map Calumet River CDF, IL Indiana Harbor Yorktown Naval Weapons Station Housatonic River, MA Housatonic River, MA Black Rock Harbor, CT McAllister Landfill Site, RI New Bedford Harbor, MA New York Harbor, NY/NJ New York Harbor, NY/NJ Dredged Material Management Plan New York Bight Mud Dump Reference Sites Housatonic River, MA Grasse River, NY - Aloca Site Saginaw River, MI Saginaw River, MI Manistique Harbor, MI Milwaukee Harbor, WI Sheboygan Harbor, WI Everett Homeport, WA Commencement Bay Superfund, WA Puget Sound Mulit-User Disposal Site (MUDS), WA Thea Foss Waterway, WA Hylebos Waterway, WA - Occidental Chemical Site Silver Bay, AK Ketchikan Pulp, AK Pearl Harbor, HI Palos Verdes Shelf, CA Palos Verdes Shelf, CA Marina del Rey, CA Richmond Harbor, CA Oakland Harbor, CA Baldwin Ship Channel, CA Oakland Harbor, CA

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  • butylins
  • chlorinated HCs
  • DDT
  • heavy metals
  • metals
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  • organotins
  • PAHs
  • PCBs
  • pesticides
  • VOCs
  • other priority pollutants

  • Location: Ketchikan Pulp, AK
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PAHs
  • Lead: PRP--Ketchikan Pulp
  • USACE role: Technical review of feasibility study.
  • Technical issues: Wood debris in deep water makes dredging difficult, no disposal site available near by.
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  • Location: Silver Bay, AK
  • Purpose: Cleanup
  • Contaminant: PAHs
  • Lead: State AK
  • USACE role: Technical review of feasibility study.
  • Technical issues: Wood debris in deep water makes dredging difficult, no disposal site available near by.
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  • Location: Baldwin Ship Channel, CA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, butylins, PAHs
  • Vol dredged material: Channel Deepening
  • Lead: San Francisco District
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Containment releases for confined disposal facilities
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-93-17. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Marina del Rey, CA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, organics
  • Vol dredged material: 500,000+ cu yd
  • Lead: USACE Los Angeles District
  • USACE role: Design and construct.
  • Technical issues: Effective cap design, convince local public that capping environmentally protective.
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  • Location: Oakland Harbor, CA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PAHs, PCBs, organotins, pesticides, metals
  • Vol dredged material: Channel Deepening
  • Lead: San Francisco District
  • USACE role: Contaminant bioavailability from bedded and suspended Oakland Harbor Deepening Project Sediments.
  • Technical issues: Continued use of in-bay DM disposal sites. Relative avialability of contaminants in re-suspended DM and in bedded DM. Comparisons of contaminated sediments outside dredged channel with Central SF Bay surficial sediments re-suspended by wave action.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-94-7. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Oakland Harbor, CA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, butyltins, PAHs, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: Channel Deepening
  • Lead: San Francisco District
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant releases for confined disposal facilities.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-92-12, Vol 1 and 2. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Palos Verdes Shelf, CA
  • Purpose: Cleanup Natural Resource Trustee
  • Contaminant: DDT, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 17 sq km contaminated area
  • Lead: NOAA
  • USACE role: Planning level feasbility study, design requirements for insitu and dredging options, assessment of deep water dredging technologies.
  • Technical issues: Vast area and volume to be remediated, water depths 30 to 200 m, implementability issues for dredging.
  • Products: 1994 Expert Report for NOAA/DOJ
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  • Location: Palos Verdes Shelf, CA
  • Purpose: Cleanup
  • Contaminant: DDT, PCBs
  • Lead: USEPA Region 9
  • USACE role: Study of capping options for EECA including contaminant pathway testing, modeling for cap placement, cap stability and cap effectiveness.
  • Technical issues: Selection of capping areas, cap design, equipment and techniques for cap placement, ability to construct cap in deep water, cap erosion potential, seismic stability, long term flux of contaminants through cap, monitoring requirements.
  • Products: Technical Report EL-99-2
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  • Location: Richmond Harbor, CA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, butyltins, PAHs
  • Vol dredged material: Channel Deepening
  • Lead: San Francisco District
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant releases for confined disposal facilities
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-93-18. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Pearl Harbor, HI
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PAHs
  • Vol dredged material: Periodic Maintenance
  • Lead: U.S. Navy PACDIV
  • USACE role: Multi-Phase Dredged Material Management Plan, testing and evaluations, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Water quality certification requirements, retention effectiveness of confined disposal facility, land disposal regulations.
  • Products: ERDC/EL SR-00-3, ERDC/EL SR-00-4, ERDC/EL SR-00-5
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  • Location: Calumet River CDF
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Lead: Chicago District
  • USACE role: CDF Management
  • Technical issues: Re-mobilization and distribution of PCBs in disposed material to fish and invertebrate organisms colonizing CDF. Comparisons with residues in organisms collect from River and navigation channel sites.
  • Products: 1994 Report to Chicago District
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  • Location: Indiana Harbor
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PAHs, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 200,000 cy
  • Lead: Chicago District
  • USACE role: Field demonstration of dredging technologies, contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, formulation of alternatives, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Modeling for no action option, contaminant releases for dredging resuspension, uplnd and nearshore confined disposal facilities and contained aquatic disposal sites, TOSCA disposal requirements.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-87-9, Vol 1 and Vol 2
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  • Location: Manistique Harbor, MI
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 100,000+ cu yd
  • Lead: USEPA Region 5
  • USACE role: Technical review, HQEPA Interagency Review Panel.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant release during dredging, feasibility of meeting cleanup goals by dredging versus in-situ capping.
  • Products: 1995 Interagency Review Panel Report to HQEPA
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  • Location: Saginaw River, MI
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: Annual Maintenance
  • Lead: Detroit District
  • USACE role: Field monitoring and laboratory testing.
  • Technical issues: Concentrations of contaminants in hopper dredge overflow, ability to continue overflow practices, retention effectiveness of confined disposal facility.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper D-89-3, Miscellaneous Paper EL-91-4
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  • Location: Saginaw River, MI
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Lead: USACE Detroit District
  • USACE role: CDF management.
  • Technical issues: Biotreatment effectiveness investigated with field pilot study, results being evaluated.
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  • Location: Black Rock Harbor, CT
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: Pilot Placement sites for upland, wetland, and aquatic
  • Lead: HQ USACE, New England District, EPA Narragansett Lab
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, and field sampling for validation of laboratory based predictions.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant releases and environmental effects for upland, wetland and aquatic disposal environments. Validation of laboratory testing protocols.
  • Products: Technical Report D-88-5, Technical Report D-88-6, Technical Report D-88-7, Technical Report D-89-2
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  • Location: Housatonic River, MA - General Electric Pittsfield Site
  • Purpose: Cleanup RCRA
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 60,000 cu yd
  • Lead: USEPA Region 1, New England District
  • USACE role: Removal Action Design and Construct, screening model, remedial investigation, technical oversight.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant release during dredging, dredging technology, habitat and river restoration, wetlands protection, cleanup standards, disposal.
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  • Location: Housatonic River, MA - General Electric Pittsfield Site
  • Purpose: Cleanup RCRA
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 15,000 cu yd plus in-situ capping
  • Lead: PRP -- General Electric, New England District
  • USACE role: Technical review and oversight for Upper half mile and Silver Lake.
  • Technical issues: Source control, groundwater modeling, groudwater cleanup, dredging technology, subaqueous cap design, river restoration, treatment and disposal.
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  • Location: Housatonic River, MA - General Electric Pittsfield Site
  • Purpose: Cleanup RCRA
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Lead: USEPA Region 1
  • USACE role: Technical review and oversight for Upper Reach Lower River.
  • Technical issues: Dredging technology, subaqueous cap design, river restoration, treatment and disposal.
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  • Location: New Bedford Harbor, MA
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PCBs, heavy metals
  • Vol dredged material: 500,000 cu yd
  • Lead: USEPA Region 1, New England District
  • USACE role: Full Engineering Feasability Study including field demonstration of dredging equipment, contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: High PCB concentrations, contaminant transport and release during dredging, dredging efficiency, water treatment, volatile emissions, contaminant releases for upland and nearshore confined disposal facilities and contained aquatic disposal sites.
  • Products: Technical Reports EL-88-15-1, EL-88-15-2, EL-88-15-3, EL-88-15-4, EL-88-15-5, EL-88-15-6, EL-88-15-7, EL-88-15-8, EL-88-15-9, EL-88-15-10, EL-88-15-11, EL-88-15-12
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  • Location: McAllister Landfill Site, RI
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PAHs, PCBs, metals
  • Lead: U.S. Navy
  • USACE role: Technical review of feasibility study.
  • Technical issues: Debris from landfill in Narragansett Bay makes dredging difficult to implement, regulatory agencies oppose capping--habitat loss, RCRA disposal issue based on derived from rule although relatively low contaminant concentrations, RCRA issue escalates disposal costs.
  • Cleanup Approach: RCRA.
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  • Location: Grasse River, NY - Aloca Site
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Lead: PRP--Alcoa
  • USACE role: Technical review and construction oversight.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant release during dredging, dredging technology, PRP want to cap rather than dredge.
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  • Location: New York Bight Mud Dump Reference Sites
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PCBs, dioxins, chlorinated HCs, metals, other priority pollutants
  • Lead: New York District
  • USACE role: Characterization of reference site contamination status for Green Book regulatory evaluations
  • Technical issues: Biota/sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for comprehensive list of sediment contaminants.
  • Products: 1994 Report to New York District
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  • Location: New York Harbor, NY/NJ Dredged Material Management Plan
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: dioxins, organics, metals
  • Vol dredged material: 5,000,000 cu yd per yr
  • Lead: USACE New York District
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing, site selection studies, GIS development, modeling, design study for contained aquatic disposal.
  • Technical issues: Select and design alternate disposal facilities in lieu of open water disposal.
  • Products: Reports in preparation
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  • Location: New York Harbor, NY/NJ
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: dioxins, organics, metals
  • Vol dredged material: 1,000+ cu yd pilot demonstrations
  • Lead: USEPA Region 2
  • USACE role: Sediment Decontamination Demonstration Program.
  • Technical issues: Evaluate technologies for NY/NJ Harbor sediments, cost effectiveness, implementability, regulatory approval of thermal process.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-94-1
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  • Location: Yorktown Naval Weapons Station, Cheatham Annex, and Little Creek, VA
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: Periodic Maintenance
  • Lead: U.S. Navy LANTDIV
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, formulation of alternatives, management plan development.
  • Technical issues: Long term capacity for contaminated dredged material, disposal site selection, design requirements, contaminant releases, beneficial use applications.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper EL-90-8, Miscellaneous Paper EL-93-1
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  • Location: Commencement Bay Superfund
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: metals, PAHs, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: Multiple Operable Units
  • Lead: EPA Region 10, Seattle District
  • USACE role: Development of a technical decision making framework for contaminant pathways.
  • Technical issues: Largest Superfund site in the U.S., contaminant releases for nearshore and upland confined disposal facilities and subaqueous capped sites.
  • Products: Miscellaneous Paper D-91-1. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Everett Homeport
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, PCBs
  • Vol dredged material: 3,300,000 cy
  • Lead: U.S. Navy WESDIV, Seattle District
  • USACE role: Contaminant pathway testing and evaluations, formulation of alternatives, disposal facility design requirements.
  • Technical issues: Modeling for capping options, containment releases for dredging resuspension, upland and nearshore confined disposal facilities and subaqueous capped sites.
  • Products: Technical Report EL-89-1. View on-line or download part1.zip and part2.zip
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  • Location: Hylebos Waterway, WA - Occidental Chemical Site
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: VOCs, PAHs
  • Lead: PRP--Occidental
  • USACE role: Technical review of feasibility study.
  • Technical issues: Contaminant release during dredging, source control, mixing zones, contaminant transport.
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  • Location: Puget Sound Mulit-User Disposal Site (MUDS)
  • Purpose: Cleanup and Navigation
  • Contaminant: metals, organics
  • Vol dredged material: 500,000 cu yd per yr
  • Lead: State WA and USACE Seattle District
  • USACE role: Identification and Conceptual Designs for Disposal Options.
  • Technical issues: Design of a mixed material confined disposal option for navigation dredged material and sediment cleanup, diked disposal and subaqueous confined.
  • Products: ERDC TR-00-3
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  • Location: Thea Foss Waterway, WA
  • Purpose: Cleanup CERCLA
  • Contaminant: PAHs, metals
  • Vol dredged material: 400,000 cu yd
  • Lead: PRP
  • USACE role: Technical review of feasibility study.
  • Technical issues: Disposal site design, contaminant transport.
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  • Location: Milwaukee Harbor, WI
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PAHs
  • Lead: USACE Detroit District
  • USACE role: CDF management.
  • Technical issues: Experimenting with techniques to accelerate biodegradation of organic contaminants, use treated dredged material beneficially, reclaim CDF capacity.
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  • Location: Sheboygan Harbor, WI
  • Purpose: Navigation
  • Contaminant: PCBs
  • Lead: Detroit District
  • USACE role: Contaminant bioavailability to freshwater fish and mollusks.
  • Technical issues: Influence of winter and summer extremes of water temperature on bioaccumulation of PCBs from dredged channel sediments.
  • Products: Internal Working Document D-85-1473
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